Radioactive iodine uptake
Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) tests thyroid function. It measures how much radioactive iodine is taken up by your thyroid gland in a certain time period.
A similar test is the thyroid scan. The 2 tests are commonly performed together, but they can be done separately.
Thyroid uptake; Iodine uptake test; RAIU
How the Test is Performed
The test is done in this way:
- You are given a pill that contains a tiny amount of radioactive iodine. After swallowing it, you wait as the iodine collects in the thyroid.
- The first uptake is usually done 4 to 6 hours after you take the iodine pill. Another uptake is usually done 24 hours later. During the uptake, you lie on your back on a table. A device called a gamma probe is moved back and forth over the area of your neck where the thyroid gland is located.
- The probe detects the location and intensity of the rays given off by the radioactive material. A computer displays how much of the tracer is taken up by the thyroid gland.
The test takes less than 30 minutes.
How to Prepare for the Test
Follow instructions about not eating before the test. You may be told not to eat after midnight the night before your test.
Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking medicines before the test that may affect your test results. DO NOT stop taking any medicine without first talking to your provider.
Tell your provider if you have:
- Diarrhea (may decrease absorption of the radioactive iodine)
- Had recent CT scans using intravenous or oral iodine-based contrast (within the past 2 weeks)
- Too little or too much iodine in your diet
How the Test will Feel
There is no discomfort. You can eat beginning about 1 to 2 hours after swallowing the radioactive iodine. You can go back to a normal diet after the test.
Why the Test is Performed
This test is done to check thyroid function. It is often done when blood tests of thyroid function show that you may have an overactive thyroid gland.
These are normal results at 6 and 24 hours after swallowing the radioactive iodine:
- At 6 hours: 3% to 16%
- At 24 hours: 8% to 25%
Some testing centers measure only at 24 hours. Values may vary depending on the amount of iodine in your diet. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different labs. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Higher-than-normal uptake may be due to an overactive thyroid gland. The most common cause is Graves disease.
Other conditions can cause some areas of higher-than-normal uptake in the thyroid gland. These include:
- An enlarged thyroid gland that contains nodules producing too much thyroid hormone (toxic nodular goiter)
- A single thyroid nodule that is producing too much thyroid hormone (toxic adenoma)
These conditions often result in normal uptake, but the uptake is concentrated into a few (hot) areas while the rest of the thyroid gland does not take up any iodine (cold areas). This can only be determined if the scan is done along with the uptake test.
Lower-than-normal uptake may be due to:
- Factitious hyperthyroidism (taking too much thyroid hormone medicine or supplements)
- Iodine overload
- Subacute thyroiditis (swelling or inflammation of the thyroid gland)
- Silent (or painless) thyroiditis
- Amiodarone (medicine to treat some kinds of heart disease)
All radiation has possible side effects. The amount of radiation in this test is very small, and there have been no documented side effects.
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not have this test.
Talk to your provider if you have concerns about this test.
The radioactive iodine leaves your body through your urine. You should not need to take special precautions, such as flushing twice after urinating, for 24 to 48 hours after the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.
Guber HA, Farag AF. Evaluation of endocrine function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 24.
Salvatore D, Davies TF, Schlumberger MJ, Hay ID, Larsen PR. Thyroid physiology and diagnostic evaluation of patients with thyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 11.
Weiss RE, Refetoff S. Thyroid function testing. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 78.
Reviewed By: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.