Renal and urological disorders
A renal disorder refers to any disease of the kidneys.
Urological disorders are diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. This includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra, as well as the male reproductive organs, including the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis.
Emmett M, Fenves AZ, Schwartz JC. Approach to the patient with kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Taal MW, Yu ASL, eds. Brenner & Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 25.
Germann CA, Holmes JA. Selected urologic disorders. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 89.
Reviewed By: Walead Latif, MD, nephrologist and Clinical Associate Professor, Rutgers Medical School, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.